1. Early Jordanian tankers
When Jordan gained its independence in 1946, it sought to increase its identity by establishing its own airline, which was formed on January 1 of that year in the name of Air Arabia. The service opened in Beirut, its wings expanded to Baghdad and Cairo by August 1947, and the British Overseas Airways Corporation (BOAC) became the main investor.
It developed into Arab Airlines Jerusalem, Ltd., after six years, operating a fleet of the Haveland Rapids twin-engine engine from Jerusalem itself to Beirut and Cairo, but eventually added Aden, Amman, Baghdad and Jeddah. But it was not the only carrier in the region.
Jordan Airlines, which was established by His Excellency Ismael Bilbeisi Fasha in 1950, started service from Amman with Airspeed Consuls, but cash was pumped in 1953 by Trans Ocean Airlines, a non-scheduled airline that operates charter flights and contracts, enabling it to modernize its fleet with 21 passengers Douglas DC-3. These eventually connected Oman to Kabul via Kuwait and Kandahar.
Contrary to what is now a competitor, Arab Airlines acquired Jerusalem the same type of aircraft.
They competed for most of the passenger base itself, but they faced competition from other Middle Eastern airlines, who chose to merge and form Jordan Airlines for the Holy Land.
Initially, two Transair CV-240s chartered from Trans Ocean were operated, and purchased the DC-4 in 1960, which was able to service longer routes, such as those to Rome from the center of Amman. Despite the promise made by this larger quad-engine aircraft, the nascent airline was forced to suspend operations on September 1 of the following year when its license was revoked.
Just one month passed before the creation of the successor – in this case, Jordan Airlines, which was jointly owned by private interests (40 percent), the Jordanian government (25 percent), and Middle East Airlines (25 percent as well), the last that Equipped with three V.700 Viscounts and turbo-powered charter flight kits. Her reign was also short.
2. The flag bearer
Seeking to establish the country’s final international air carrier, King Hussein asked Jordan, who was a pilot himself, Ali Ghandour, Vice President of Lebanese Airways at that time, to make plans for an airline with the flag, according to the same king, to serve in its capacity. ” … a national transportation company to be our goodwill ambassador around the world and the bridge through which we exchange culture, civilization, trade, technology, friendship and better understanding with the rest of the world. “
She was named after his eldest daughter, the resulting company was named Alia Royal Jordanian Airlines. Although its structure was only completed on December 8, 1963, the king issued one additional request – that it become portable within a week.
Achieving what would have been considered merely an impossible goal, Ghandour was able to turn plans into aircraft, where he obtained a Handley Page Herald 207s chartered from the Royal Jordanian Air Force and Douglas DC-7C, where he opened service from Amman to Beirut. On December 15, Cairo and Kuwait were added the following week, enabling DC-7 seconds to service Jeddah.
Piston engines were later produced for jet engines, with the acquisition of Sud-Aviation SE.210-10R Caravelles, the first of which was delivered on July 29, 1965, and the type facilitated high-speed and over-weather services. To Europe, mainly to Rome and Paris.
Ever to fight adversity and obstacles, he again encounters an enemy. Israel took control of Jerusalem two years later, in June, Israel promptly withdrew from two of the country’s most important resources – tourism and agriculture – which drastically reduced the demand for new carrier services, resulting in lower aircraft load.
During this latest crisis, Jordanians discovered a third resource, and they themselves – and only with determination and dedication, remained high high. The subsequent government acquisition gave her the necessary financial support.
After successfully navigating the latest turmoil, it logged its entry into the 1970s by acquiring the first long-range jet plane, and received the first two Boeing 707-320 CC on January 19 of the following year, and these routes were facilitated, specifically to Karachi in East, Madrid, Casablanca, and Copenhagen in the west.
A common, albeit short, service was launched from Karachi to East Africa with Pakistan International Airlines (PIA).
Only the first 707 was among several types of Boeing purchased. Two 720B aircraft were acquired, for example, in 1972 for the mid-range and low-density sectors, while three advanced 727-200 jet fighters were purchased for short to medium-range operations. Equipped with a more flexible and economical fleet, it was able to expand into the European region and continent.
With the introduction of the era of wide body, Alia received the first two Boeing 747-200B aircraft on December 15, 1976, which facilitated the launch of the transatlantic service from Amman to New York and Houston via Vienna or Amsterdam in July of the following year, the first Arab airline to do so. It became the first of two types to be operated.
It departed from its entire fleet, ordering six Lockheed L-1011-500 aircraft. Upon entering service in October 1981 between Amman and London Heathrow, the triple engine type enabled the service of European destinations and many destinations in the Middle East, such as those to the Gulf states, with a wide body aircraft for the first time.
Complementary to the 747s, it operated the Amman-Vienna / Amsterdam-New York routes on certain days, as well as a newly opened road to Los Angeles with an intermediate stop in Chicago. The John F. Kennedy Airport sector was also upgraded to non-stop mode and some flights operated through Montreal.
By 1982, it had operated seven 707-320Cs, one 720-030B, six 727-200 applicants, and three 747-200Bs, two of which were in a combi configuration with cargo loading capabilities on the main deck, and two L-1011-500.
After the retirement of the four-engine narrow-body objects, by 1985, its fleet had centered around 747 for the long-range and high-density tracks, the TriStar 500 for the medium to long-term, medium-density parts, and 727 for the short parts to the mid-range and low-density sectors.
December 15, 1986 witnessed many accomplishments: The Jordanian carrier celebrated the tenth anniversary of serving the Middle East, the United States and the silver jubilee of the quarter century, on the occasion of this occasion with a new image and institutional name, the latter was modified from Alia to, simply, Royal Jordanian Airlines, in order to emphasize Her identity.
Ali Ghandour, Chairman and CEO of the company said: “The new company name is the embodiment of our sense of heritage, as well as our sense of destiny, of our accomplishments and aspirations, and in this process the” royal “contact that we maintained from the beginning was identified, confirmed and appreciated.
He concluded by saying: “Last but not least, I would like to stress that we did not seek change for its own benefit, but to demonstrate to ourselves and to the world that we are progressive in our outlook, determined in our efforts to move forward., Confident and also full of hopes for a bright future.”
The Jordanian Royal Road System, as of January 1, 1987, consisted of 41 cities in 34 countries on four continents.
Among these roads, there were three long-term North Atlantic routes, including the sectors of Amman – Vienna – New York, Amman – Amsterdam – New York, and the sectors of Amman – Vienna – Chicago – Los Angeles, and two of them were long-range long-distance lines, including Oman Bangkok and Amman – Kuala Lumpur – Singapore.
Two North African roads were created, from Amman to Tripoli and from Amman to Tunisia and Casablanca, while one destination was introduced in the former Soviet Union, Moscow.
European destinations included Amsterdam, Athens, Belgrade, Brussels, Bucharest, Copenhagen, Frankfurt, Geneva, Istanbul, Larnaca, London, Madrid, Paris Orly, Rome and Vienna.
Not surprisingly, the heavy concentration of Middle Eastern tracks includes Abu Dhabi, Oman, Baghdad, Bahrain, Cairo, Damascus, Dhahran, Doha, Dubai, Jeddah, Karachi, Kuwait, Muscat, Riyadh, and Sanaa.
Its only domestic sector was between its center and Aqaba.
Two common services were also operated – those to Beirut with MEA and to East Berlin with Interflug.
During the five-year period from 1979 to 1983, the annual number of passengers transported included the following: 1979: 915,000; 1980: 1,000,000; 1981: 1,440,000; 1982: 1 663 2767; 1983: 1,457,334.
Regardless of the airline itself, Royal Jordanian has counted several air and ground subsidiaries within its portfolio.
It was the first for Arab air freight. Behind Jordan International Airlines, which established itself in 1974, was established in March 1982 as a Jordanian-Iraqi joint venture and opened a freight service on May 1 of the following year with two planes 707-320 in the composition of freight.
Both are members of the Arab Air Carriers Organization (AACO) and the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO), have traveled to cities such as Amman, Amsterdam, Baghdad, Brussels, Dubai, Larnaca, London and Rome. Six hundred and twelve flights were carried out in 1985, during which 4,521 hours of revenue were transported and 21,166 tons of cargo transported, resulting in $ 16.6 million.
The Arabian Wings Company, its second subsidiary, provided fast commercial jet charter service upon request to remote and inaccessible areas of the Middle East, and was by then the only operation of its kind in the region. Co-financed by the Government of Oman (one-third) and Royal Jordanian itself (two-thirds), the service opened in May 1975 and managed two of the six Learjet 35s and one of the eight passengers Rockwell Sabreliner 75A from Oman and the Muscat Air Force bases.
During the three-year period from 1981 to 1983, it transported 1,636, 2,116 and 1,390 passengers, respectively.
A separate branch, AWF, provided medical medical service and was taken to heaven for the first time in 1978.
Sierra Leone Airlines, its third subsidiary, was formed in 1982 to succeed Sierra Leone Airlines, which was founded in 1958, and opened service in November from Freetown, Sierra Leone, to London, with joint ownership by Royal Jordanian (20 percent), interests Private (20 per cent), and the Government of Sierra Leone (60 per cent).
Subsequent expansion led to the opening of international services from Freetown-Longy to Abidjan (Ivory Coast), Accra (Ghana), Dakar (Senegal), Lagos (Nigeria), Las Palmas (Canary Islands), London, Monrovia (Liberia) and Paris, while connecting domestic flights, based in Freetown – Hastings, the airport with Ponte, Kenema and Yanjima, all with one number 707-320 and one 720 and two from the British Norman Trailers. It was later replaced by CASA C-212-200 Aviocars.
Apart from these subsidiaries, Royal Jordanian also had several land companies. These included Queen Alia International Airport (QAIA), which opened on May 25, 1983 and features two interconnected terminals with 12 gates and can handle up to five million passengers annually.
The hospitality service, which had the capacity to prepare 20,000 daily meals for on-board catering, the airport restaurant, snack bars and employee cafeterias, managed the 315-star Alia Gateway, which opened in 1985 and was used By transit passengers and flight crew. He also supervised the free shops at the airport.
The Royal Jordanian Training Center was divided into the Technical Training Institute and the Commercial and Administrative Center.
The Royal Jordanian Air Academy, which includes two civilian and military branches, which is another subsidiary, is made up of the Middle East Regional Technical Center in 1985 by the International Air Transport Association.
Many of the other concerns included the Queen Noor Civil Aviation Institute. Arab Air Services Company, which was the engineering consulting branch that helped design and build the airport itself between 1979 and 1983; The Royal Jordanian Popular Group Alia Art Gallery; And royal tours.
4. RJ today
The fleet modernization witnessed the last decade of the history of Royal Jordanian in the twentieth century, and indicated a long-time loyalty shift from Boeing and Lockheed products to Airbus Industry aircraft, the first of which was the A-310-300.
Backed by turbo-propelled helicopters with a high overtaking and flying by a two-person cockpit crew, it replaced the 727 on-road aircraft as demand exceeded its capacity or proved too weak for the L-1011s, but offered comfort with the wide body with a double aisle. Because of its long-term capacity, it even operated one station between Jordan and the United States across the Atlantic, especially during periods of low demand.
However, these aircraft were transported primarily by the addition of a second Airbus fleet, the A-340-200 Quad Engine, which eventually replaced both the 747 and TriStars.
Bonafide 727 has been replaced, in regional, Middle Eastern, North African and European parts, as a twin-engine element, A-319, A-320 and A-321 bodybuilding, while short and regional tracks were flown by another type, Embraer E-175 and E -195 double-class components, which respectively accommodated 72 and 100 passengers. Both were perfectly suited for a 45-minute period between the capital and the Aqaba resort on the Red Sea.
Accepted as a member of the Oneworld Alliance in 2007, Royal Jordanian continued to upgrade its long-term fleet, acquiring 233,000 kg of A-330-200s consisting of 24 crowns and 259 economic seats between 2010 and 2011 and 227,930 kg 787-8 Dreamliner, respectively, accommodating 24 and 247 passengers between August and November 2014. The A-310s were intermittently converted into trucks with major open and upward cargo doors and A-340s, due to not being limited to four fuel consumption engines, was completely removed from the service.
On the threshold of its golden jubilee on December 15, 2012, the Royal Jordanian provided the fiftieth anniversary garment on one of its aircraft, which re-activated the first tanker route to Beirut.
Having faced regional obstacles and conflicts, she has worked as a vital contributor to the country’s culture and economy. Because of the scarcity of natural resources, agriculture and tourism in the occupied West Bank were once closed, as it served as an air bridge to the rest of the world, and it became one of the main sources of income for the country, and for this reason it viewed passenger connectivity as vital to its continued existence. As a result, it has served, to a large extent, as a basis on which the country itself relied.
In his reflection on the carrier’s history during the golden jubilee ceremony held at Queen Alia International Airport in December 2012, Nasser Luzi said, “When His Majesty King Hussein launched Alia as RJ was his name December 15, 1963, he wanted to be the national carrier of the Kingdom The Hashemite Jordanian Association With the aim of contributing to Jordan’s progress, enhancing interaction with other cultures, and establishing relations with other countries … (today) we are proud of being the national carrier that links Jordan and the Levant with the world. “
Looking at its growth, which saw the number of annual passengers increase from 87,000 in 1964 to more than 3.3 million in 2012, Royal Jordanian and CEO said, “Royal Jordanian has been a pioneer in establishing a solid base for the air transport industry locally and regionally.”
Three E-175, five E-195, four A-319-100, six A-320-200, two A-321-200, three A-330-200 and five 787- 8 By the end of 2014, Royal Jordanian served 54 destinations on four continents and seemed well-defined to continue the mission established by its founder.